Speaking of the most famous duck in China,
Beijingers’ love for ducks is unique to the entire north. After all, ducks are waterfowl. Compared to the small bridges and rivers in the south of the Yangtze River, northerners do not regard ducks as the main poultry.
Nanjing people have a long history of confidence in making ducks, and the story of Beijing roast duck,
Before being domesticated by humans, ducks were water birds with migratory habits. The relatively arid north was not their traditional habitat.
Nanjing, the center of the Jianghuai region, is still the main area for eating ducks.
The so-called relying on mountains to eat mountains, relying on water to draft water.
If you look closely, you will find that the ducks used in Beijing roast duck and the ducks eaten by Nanjing people are significantly different in breed.
An adult Peking duck can weigh more than 3kg, which is about 2-3 times the size of the Shaoxing duck, mallard duck, and Putian black duck commonly found in the south.
For example, mallard ducks mainly inhabit lakes, rivers, ponds, swamps and other waters rich in aquatic plants. They are small in size and suitable for weaving through reeds.
However, in the world of meat ducks, Peking ducks are not considered the heaviest. Adult Gaoyou ducks weigh more than Peking ducks.
There are no ducks in the surrounding areas of Beijing. Peking ducks are artificially bred breeds. The breeding purpose is very strong.
The earliest appearance in China was the Song Dynasty, and Zhang Lei's poem "Double White Duck", born in Bozhou, Anhui, provides the most direct evidence for this conclusion. Considering the poet's own life trajectory and the failure of the Pian'an dynasty to rule the sixteen states of Yanyun during the Song Dynasty, the fact that Peking Duck came from the south is self-evident.
According to the record of breed history, the time when white feather ducks appeared in Beijing was about 500 years ago. Almost during this time period,
(AD 1416), a very special year for Beijing.
The terrain of China is high in the north and low in the south, which is rare in the Ming Dynasty
As part of Nanjing City was built by filling the lake,
After the Battle of Jingnan, the task of moving the capital was handed over to Zhu Di. Maybe it’s because I haven’t adapted to the life in the south for a long time in the settlement, maybe because there are too many old prince forces around Nanjing, or maybe it’s because the emperor should guard the country after the Northern Yuan Dynasty.
This plan has been gradually implemented since his first year as a throne. In the first year of Yongle,
The economic level has reached unprecedented prosperity.
At that time, apart from the military households in Shandong and Hebei that enriched the capital, the population of Beijing was composed of officials and people from Nanjing. Although these people who speak Jianghuai Mandarin followed Yongle Emperor to the north,
It is said that one of the people who moved from Nanjing to Beijing at that time was a businessman surnamed Wang who opened the first roast duck workshop in Beijing near Nancheng Bingmasi, aiming at business opportunities. The shop was called "Jinling Sliced Duck".
"Jinling" and "Nanlu" both confirmed the Nanjing blood of the Peking Duck ancestor. It can be seen that a vigorous capital relocation has a huge impact on the shaping of Beijing’s culture.
A lot of northern colors are also incorporated into the process of roast duck going north. For example, Nanya Beidu and Lu cuisine came into Beijing at the same time, and several generations of roast duck chefs in Beijing came from Rongcheng, Shandong. Therefore, the way of eating Beijing roast duck has many elements of Shandong cuisine.
It is more likely to learn from the cooking method of the whole sheep barbecue of the northern ethnic minorities. This roasting method is not suitable for most types of southern ducks, because water ducks have thin skin and low body fat, making it difficult to control the heat.
Today, foreigners must eat Peking Duck once when they come to Beijing. This seems to have become a customary rule.
There are three original methods of Beijing roast duck, namely the braising method, the hanging furnace method and the barbecued pork method.
Barbecued pork is the most traditional way,
However, the barbecued pork method is laborious and can not guarantee the taste, and eventually disappeared. Most of the roast duck on the table today is made of
As the name suggests, the stew is to put the packed duck into the stove and close the door to stew.
The hanging stove does not have a door, and the upper part is a semi-circular shape for the ducks to move. The process of baking in the oven is
The hanging furnace method has higher fuel requirements,
After several hours of braising and roasting, the fat duck is already crispy on the outside and tender on the inside. After it is out of the oven, a chef with excellent knives needs to quickly slice the duck meat and put it on the plate. A Beijing big white duck weighs about four catties, according to the oldest rule in the roast duck business,
The most mainstream combination of roast duck is
The sliced roast duck is served on the table. Some impatient men will pick up the sliced duck with chopsticks, swipe it on the sauce bowl and spread it evenly on the noodles. Put two scallions on it and roll it into a ball. Tucked into your mouth. What I eat is that the sauce leaks out instantly after being squeezed by the mouth.
The other way of eating is much more refined. After spreading the lotus leaf cake, add a touch of sweet noodle sauce, such as a thin brush nib covered with ink, calligraphy and painting on rice paper, and then use one or two slices of duck meat to cover the sauce and serve with cucumber. Strips, carrots, red and green are really good-looking.
What can be seen is the rise and growth of the duck-eating culture in Beijing that originated from the Jianghuai River.
From the mallard ducks in the south to the big white ducks in Beijing, from Nanjing Yingtian Mansion to Beijing Shuntian Mansion, from Jinling Sliced Duck to Beijing Roast Duck,
All are reflected on a table of roast duck.
*The content of this article is provided by the author and does not represent the position of the Earth Knowledge Bureau
Cover image: Figure insect creativity